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变压器维护Transformer maintenance

发表时间:2019/7/25 18:37:04  浏览次数:127  
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电力为世界提供动力,是人类不可或缺的产品,就像水和食物一样。

这类能源需要两种使之成为可能的材料——导电体和电绝缘体。实际上,没有人能负担得起使用理想的导体和绝缘矩阵。因此,该行业不得不以可接受的价格与最好的现有材料妥协。

电力变压器,像任何其他电气设备,必须包含这两种类型的材料。目前大多数电力变压器最有利的绝缘介质是液体绝缘和固体绝缘相结合的机电强度绝缘。

众所周知,导电材料和绝缘材料温度的升高分别降低了它们导电和隔离电流的能力。温度正反馈会使介质、导体和绝缘体的性能呈指数级恶化。在电气设备中使用液体绝缘的优点之一是具有变压器或其他电气设备所有故障的潜在日志数据。在干绝缘和气体绝缘中,这些故障条件的信息源实际上并不存在,或者很难实现,至少在今天是这样,但在未来可能会发生变化。如果油层易于取样,则可以在不影响设备开采的情况下提取作业数据。对于有限的油量装置,获得样品可能更为复杂,并可能施加特殊的限制。

大多数液浸式电力变压器和其他液浸装置都能在合理安全的条件下获得具有代表性的油样。这些油样包含了大约70%的操作数据。评价变压器状态最重要、最重要的试验是溶解气体分析- DGA。这个测试包含最多的操作数据。DGA的主要优点是具有预测变压器大部分故障和评估变压器健康状态的潜在能力。当然,它不能帮助防止所有的内部故障。

此外,变压器内部检测到的大部分问题都不是至关重要的,如果没有DGA,即使变压器产生气体,也有可能在计划的使用寿命结束之前一直运行下去。

Introduction

Electricity powers the world and is an indispensable product for humanity, almost like water and food. This energy category needs two types of materials which make it feasible - electrical conductors and electrical insulators. In practice, no one can afford to use ideal conductors and insulations matrixes. Accordingly, the industry has to compromise with the best available materials at acceptable prices. Power transformers, like any other electrical device, have to contain these two types of materials. The most advantageous insulation media for most power transformers today is liquid insulation combined with solid insulation for both mechanical and electrical strength. It is well known that increases in temperature of conductive and insulating materials decrease their capabilities to conduct and to isolate the electricity, respectively. Temperature positive feedback deteriorates the properties of both media, conductors and insulators, exponentially. One of the advantages of using liquid insulating in electrical equipment is having a potential log data of all malfunctions of the transformer or other electrical equipment. In dry and gas insulation these information sources of faulty conditions are practical inexistent or hard to achieve, at least nowadays, but that may change in the future. If the oil reservoir is accessible for sampling, the operational data can be extracted without disturbing the exploitation of the equipment. For limited oil volume devices, obtaining a sample can be more complicated and can impose special restraints. Most liquid-immersed power transformers and other liquid immersed devices are enabled for obtaining a representative oil sample in reasonably safe conditions. These oil samples contain around 70 % of operational data. The most important and significant test for evaluating transformer condition is the dissolved gas analysis - DGA. This test contains the greatest amount the operational data. The main benefit of DGA is the unique advantage of being potentially capable of predicting the majority of the failures and evaluating the health state of transformers. Of course, it cannot assist in preventing all of the internal failures. Also, a great percentage of the issues detected inside the transformer are not vital and without the DGA it is plausible that transformer may be able to operate until the planned end of life even if it produces gases.

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